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Most of the post-Jupiter voyage was spent in hibernation mode to preserve on-board systems, except for brief annual checkouts. The mission, led by the Applied Physics Laboratory and Alan Stern, would become the first mission to Pluto successfully funded and launched, after years of delays and cancellations.In August 1992, JPL scientist Robert Staehle called Pluto discoverer Clyde Tombaugh, requesting permission to visit his planet.
The other finalist, POSSE (Pluto and Outer Solar System Explorer), was a separate, but similar Pluto mission concept by the University of Colorado Boulder, led by principal investigator Larry W.
New Horizons is the first mission in NASA's New Frontiers mission category, larger and more expensive than the Discovery missions but smaller than the Flagship Program.
The cost of the mission (including spacecraft and instrument development, launch vehicle, mission operations, data analysis, and education/public outreach) is approximately 0 million over 15 years (2001–2016).
This work compiles several decades of evidence collected by the authors in the Bahamas and Bermuda, carrying forward ideas that Conrad first articulated many decades ago.
Conrad was instrumental in recognizing the catastrophic events at the close of the last interglacial, recorded by reefs, dunes, and bioerosional notches, christening it the climatic “madhouse” between the greenhouse and icehouse.
Esposito, and supported by the JPL, Lockheed Martin and the University of California.
were at an advantage; they had recently developed NEAR Shoemaker for NASA, which had successfully entered orbit around 433 Eros earlier in the year, and would later land on the asteroid to scientific and engineering fanfare.
The LIG record reveals that strong climate forcing is not required to yield major impacts on the ocean and ice caps.
Antarctic ice cores document that LIG atmospheric CO forcing at unmatched rates, except perhaps during global extinction events, dramatic change is certain.
After a brief encounter with asteroid 132524 APL, New Horizons proceeded to Jupiter, making its closest approach on February 28, 2007, at a distance of 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles).
The Jupiter flyby provided a gravity assist that increased New Horizons scientific capabilities, returning data about the planet's atmosphere, moons, and magnetosphere.
After an intense campaign to gain support for New Horizons, the Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2003–2013 was published in the summer of 2002.